*Examining Einstein’s Discrepancy Concerning Clock Synchronization That Involves His Second Relativity Postulate*

**DOI:**10.54647/physics140605 9 Downloads 47721 Views

**Author(s)**

**Abstract**

In his 1905 special relativity paper, Einstein defined clock synchronization occurs when photon transmissions traverse a distance (or rod) with equal time spans in either direction. With a universal photon speed, he discovered clocks on the ends of a rod moving parallel with uniform velocity cannot be synchronized, but clocks attached to a stationary rod can be, using an inertial resting frame. He claimed the discrepancy was due to simultaneous observations in one frame, but nonsimultaneous in another inertial frame. His claim is invalid, since his derivation used one stationary observer in the same resting frame for both cases without extra observers or frames. His first relativity postulate mandates the system’s state (e.g., clock synchronization) is unaffected by a constant velocity. Equating Einstein’s synchronization for both the stationary and uniformly moving rods, the photon velocity obeys vector velocity addition when the photon source moves relative to the detector, but a roundtrip traverse of photons has an average speed that is identical to the standard magnitude of c. Early photon speed tests performed by Fizeau, Foucault, and Michelson were horizontal roundtrip flights that indicated photon speed is universally constant. Six discrepancies and contradictions involving the second relativity postulate are discussed, including special relativity does not preserve the numerical speed of photons between moving inertial frames. Einstein’s synchronization explains the constructive interference output from the Michelson-Morley interferometer. Past special relativity analyses claimed only length contraction parallel to the interferometer’s constant velocity makes the traverses over the arms equal to output constructive interference. That ignores parallel time dilation projected on each arm that differently alters photon frequency to cause destructive interference. Photon velocities with vector velocity addition seem to resolve many dilemmas from ultraprecise tests including three Pioneer anomalies.

**Keywords**

Special relativity, length contraction, time dilation, photon speed, gravitation, interferometer, Pioneer anomalies

**Cite this paper**

Steven D. Deines,
Examining Einstein’s Discrepancy Concerning Clock Synchronization That Involves His Second Relativity Postulate
, *SCIREA Journal of Physics*.
Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2024 | PP. 8-54.
10.54647/physics140605

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