*Examining Einstein’s Discrepancy Concerning Clock Synchronization That Involves His Second Relativity Postulate*

**DOI:**10.54647/physics140605 16 Downloads 169481 Views

**Author(s)**

**Abstract**

In his 1905 special relativity paper, Einstein defined clock synchronization occurs when photon transmissions traverse a distance (or rod) with equal time spans in either direction. With a universal photon speed, he discovered clocks on the ends of a rod moving parallel with uniform velocity cannot be synchronized, but clocks attached to a stationary rod can be, using an inertial resting frame. He claimed the discrepancy was due to simultaneous observations in one frame, but nonsimultaneous in another inertial frame. His claim is invalid, since his derivation used one stationary observer in the same resting frame for both cases without extra observers or frames. His first relativity postulate mandates the system’s state (e.g., clock synchronization) is unaffected by a constant velocity. Equating Einstein’s synchronization for both the stationary and uniformly moving rods, the photon velocity obeys vector velocity addition when the photon source moves relative to the detector, but a roundtrip traverse of photons has an average speed that is identical to the standard magnitude of c. Early photon speed tests performed by Fizeau, Foucault, and Michelson were horizontal roundtrip flights that indicated photon speed is universally constant. Six discrepancies and contradictions involving the second relativity postulate are discussed, including special relativity does not preserve the numerical speed of photons between moving inertial frames. Einstein’s synchronization explains the constructive interference output from the Michelson-Morley interferometer. Past special relativity analyses claimed only length contraction parallel to the interferometer’s constant velocity makes the traverses over the arms equal to output constructive interference. That ignores parallel time dilation projected on each arm that differently alters photon frequency to cause destructive interference. Photon velocities with vector velocity addition seem to resolve many dilemmas from ultraprecise tests including three Pioneer anomalies.

**Keywords**

Special relativity, length contraction, time dilation, photon speed, gravitation, interferometer, Pioneer anomalies

**Cite this paper**

Steven D. Deines,
Examining Einstein’s Discrepancy Concerning Clock Synchronization That Involves His Second Relativity Postulate
, *SCIREA Journal of Physics*.
Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2024 | PP. 8-54.
10.54647/physics140605

**References**

[ 1 ] | Miller, A. I., Albert Einstein’s Special theory of Relativity: Emergence (1905) and Early Interpretation (1905-1911), (Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, Inc., Reading, Mass., 1981). |

[ 2 ] | Newton, I., Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, (1686), translated from Latin by Andrew Motte, revised by Florian Cajori in 1934), (Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 21st printing, 1977). |

[ 3 ] | Kohlrausch, R., and Weber, W., Elektrodynamische Maassbestimmungen, insbesondere Zurückführung der Stromintensitäts-Messungen auf mechanische Maass (Leipzig 1856). |

[ 4 ] | Maxwell, J. C., A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, (2 vols., Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1873), (reprinted from abridged 3rd ed., Dover, New York, 1954). |

[ 5 ] | Heaviside, O., Electromagnetic Theory, “The Elements of Vectorial Algebra and Analysis”, (Vol. 1, Chap. 3, 1893) pp 132-305. |

[ 6 ] | Kollros, L., “Albert Einstein en Suisse Souvenirs”, in Jubilee of Relativity Theory (Basel: Birkhäuser-Verlag, 1956) pp. 271-281. |

[ 7 ] | Sauter, J., Erinnerungen an Albert Einstein. This pamphlet (unpaginated) was published in 1965 by the Patent Office in Bern, and contains documents pertaining to Einstein’s years at that office as well as a note by Sauter. |

[ 8 ] | Holton, G., Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein, (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA., 1973). |

[ 9 ] | Foppl, A., Einführung in die Maxwell’sche Theorie der Elektricität, (Teubner, Leipzig, 1894). |

[ 10 ] | Abraham, M., Theorie der Elektrizität: Einführung in die Maxwellsche Theorie der Elektrizität (Teubner, Leipzig, 1st ed. 1904, 2nd ed., 1907). |

[ 11 ] | Seeling, C., Albert Einstein: Eine dokumentarische Biographic, (Europa-Verlag, Zürich, 1954). |

[ 12 ] | Poincare, H., Science and Hypothesis, English retranslation by Dover, New York (1952) of La Science et l’ Hypothèse (1902). |

[ 13 ] | Deines, S. D., “Inadequacies in the Current Definition of the Meter and Ramifications Affecting Einstein’s Second Postulate of Relativity”, (J. Modern Physics, 14, No. 3., 2022). |

[ 14 ] | LIGO caltech.edu website (operated by Caltech and MIT), Facts subpage lists the extreme engineering to construct LIGO and its operation. |

[ 15 ] | Pound, R. V., and Rebka Jr., G. A., “Gravitational Red-Shift in Nuclear Resonance”, (Phy Rev. Letters 3(9), 1 Nov. 1959) pp. 439-441. |

[ 16 ] | Kennedy, R. J., and Thorndike, E. M., “Experimental Establishment of the Relativity of Time”, (Physical Review 42(3), 1932), pp. 400-418. |

[ 17 ] | Chou, C. W., Rosenband, T., Hume, D. B., and Wineland, D., “Optical Clocks and Relativity”, (Science, 329, Iss. 5999, 24 Sep 2010) pp. 1630-1633. |

[ 18 ] | Brewer, S. M., Chen, J.-S., Hankin, A. M., Chou, C. W., Wineland, D. J., Hume, D. B., and Leibrandt, D. R. “An 29Al+ Quantum-Logic Clock with Systematic Uncertainty Below 10-18”, (Phys. Rev. Lett., 123, Iss. 3, 19 July 2019), 333201. |

[ 19 ] | Bothwell, T., Kennedy, C. J., Aeppli, A., Kedar, D., Robinson, J. M., Oelker, E., Staron, A., and Ye, J. “Resolving the Gravitational Redshift Across a Millimetre-scale Atomic Sample”, (Nature, 602, Is. 7897, 16 Feb 2022), pp. 420-424. |

[ 20 ] | Deines, S. D., “Classical Derivation of the Total Solar Deflection of Light”, (Int. J. of App. Math. and Theor. Physics, 2(4)- , Oct 2016), pp. 52-56. |

[ 21 ] | Covarrubias, E., Ph. D. Thesis, Relativistic Effect of Cosmogenic Muons, Dept. of Physics, Cal. State U. Stanislaus, (18 April 2018). |

[ 22 ] | Lorrain, P., and Corson, D. R., Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, (2nd ed., W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1970) pp. 250. |

[ 23 ] | Anderson, J. D. et al., “Anomalous Orbital-Energy Changes Observed during Spacecraft Flybys of Earth”, (Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(9) 091102, 7 March 2008). |

[ 24 ] | Alväger, T. A., Farley, F. J. M., Kjellman, J., and Waller, I., “Test of the Second Postulate of Special Relativity in the GeV Region”, (Physics Letters, 12 (3), 1964), pp. 260-262. |

[ 25 ] | Misner, C. W., Thorne, K. S., and Wheeler, J. A., Gravitation, (W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1973), pp. 1112-1113. |

[ 26 ] | Deines, S. D., “Comparing Relativistic Theories Against Observed Perihelion Shifts in Icarus and Mercury”, (Int. J. of App. Math. and Theor. Physics, 3(3), July 2017), pp. 61-73. |

[ 27 ] | Shapiro, I.I., Smith, W. B., Ash, M. E., and Herrick, S., “General Relativity and the Orbit of Icarus”, Astron. J., 76(7), 1971), pp. 588-606. |

[ 28 ] | Shapiro I. I. (1964) “Fourth Test of General Relativity”, Physical Review Letters, 13(26): 789-791. |

[ 29 ] | Shapiro, I. I., Pettengill, G. H., Ash, M. E., Stone, M. L., Smith, W. B., Ingalls, R. P., Brockelman, R. A., (1968) “Fourth Test of General Relativity, Preliminary Results”, Physical Review Letters, 20(22), 1265-1269. |

[ 30 ] | Anderson, John D., Laing, Philip A., Lau, Eunice L., Liu, Anthony S., Nieto, Michael M., and Turyshev, Slava G., “Study of the Anomalous Acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11”, Physics Review D, 65(8) April 2001, arXiv:gr-qc/0104064v5. |

[ 31 ] | Turyshev, S. G., Toth, V. T., Kinsella, G., Lee, S.-C., Lok, S. M. and Ellis, J., Phys. Rev. Lett, 108, (12 June 2012) “Support for the Thermal Origin of the Pioneer Anomaly”, 241101. |

[ 32 ] | Ohanian, H., and Ruffini, R. (1994) “Gravitation and Spacetime, 2nd ed., W. W. Norton & Co., New York. |

[ 33 ] | Goldstein, H., Classical Mechanics, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 2nd printing (1980), pp. 277. |

[ 34 ] | Smolin, Lee, The Trouble with Physics, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston (2007), pp. 215. |

[ 35 ] | Einstein, A., Relativity: The Special and General Theory, Three River Press, New York (1961) translated by Robert Larson, pp. 59. |